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5 min read

Understanding the German Works Council: A Comprehensive Guide for Employers

Understanding the German Works Council: A Comprehensive Guide for Employers

The German Works Council is one of the most important elements of German labor law. Read on to find out how these entities work from the perspective of both employer and employee. 

In this article, we look at German Works Councils, exploring their structure, roles, benefits, and challenges and comparing them to trade unions.

By the end, you’ll have a solid understanding of the German Works Council and how to handle German labor laws with expert help.

Key Takeaways

  • German Works Councils are legally required for companies with at least five employees and protect employee interests.

  • The election process for German Works Councils is conducted every four years and is overseen by an election committee.

  • Companies must consider the pros and cons of establishing a German Works Council and their obligations under labor laws. Expert help can be sought to ensure compliance.

What is the German Works Council (Betriebsrat)

A German Works Council, or “Betriebsrat,” is a company-level representative body that serves as a local complement to trade unions, independently representing the elected employees of a firm. The proportion of personnel working at a business with a works council varied considerably in 2019, depending on the sector. Figures ranged between 16% – 86%These councils are required for companies with at least five employees and possess considerable authority in representing employees on a wide range of topics, including official company processes. The main goal of German Works Councils revolves around protecting employee interests through the election of council members who act on behalf of the workforce.

The Works Constitution Act

The legal basis for German Works Councils is specified in the Works Constitution Act (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz), which outlines the roles and responsibilities of a works council member. The Act establishes works councils, outlines the rights and obligations of employee representation bodies, and grants employees the right to participate.

Roles and Responsibilities of a German Works Council

The central function of a German Works Council encompasses:

  • Advocating for employee interests, including union members, by fostering dialogue with management
  • Ensuring that laws, rules, and health provisions are enforced in a way that benefits the company’s workforce
  • Being informed and consulted regarding various company matters, such as recruitment, dismissal, and working conditions
  • Having the right to veto certain decisions made by management
  • Participating in collective agreements
German Work Council Duties and Rights
German Work Council Duties and Rights

Employee Advocacy

A Works Council serves as the voice of the employees within a company, addressing their concerns and negotiating with management on their behalf. Works Councils empower individual employees with a unified voice in company decisions by providing a platform for employee representation.

This guarantees the consideration of employee interests and safeguards their rights and freedoms in the workplace.

Collaboration with Management

Collaboration with management is a key aspect of German Works Councils, as they work together to create a harmonious work environment and ensure that employee interests are considered in key company decisions. This partnership can lead to several benefits, such as enhanced communication between the employer and employees, increased employee satisfaction, and improved decision-making.

However, successful collaboration requires both parties to be open to compromise and willing to work together, which can sometimes be challenging.

Establishing a German Works Council: The Election Process

The election process for German Works Councils involves regular elections, an employee election committee, and various employer obligations. These elections occur every four years, ensuring employee representation remains current and relevant.

The Works Council election process is vital to setting up a Works Council that genuinely embodies the workforce’s interests.

Election Committee

The election committee is responsible for:

  • Overseeing and ensuring the legality and fairness of the election process
  • Comprised of employees elected by their colleagues
  • Managing the election
  • Coordinating with relevant parties
  • Maintaining a comprehensive understanding of the election rules and regulations.

Through careful oversight of the election process, the election committee ensures the resulting Works Council accurately mirrors employee interests.

Employer Obligations

Employers have an essential role in the election process, as they must provide the necessary resources and support for the process to occur. This includes covering the expenses of the election and ensuring that they adhere to all state law requirements.

In meeting these obligations, employers exhibit their dedication to creating a fair and transparent Works Council that benefits all involved parties.

Composition of a German Works Council

The composition of a German Works Council is determined by the company’s size, with the number of elected members contingent upon the number of employees. These members, who serve four-year terms, are responsible for representing the interests of their fellow employees within the company.

Ensuring that the Works Council’s composition mirrors the workforce allows the council to stand for employee interests and work alongside management effectively.

Different Works Council Structures
Different German Works Council Structures

Legal Requirements for German Works Councils

German Works Councils are legally required for companies with five or more full-time employees, but employees must request their establishment. Failing to hold an election for a Works Council when requested violates criminal law, so companies must organize an election if a request is made promptly.

Although companies with five or more permanent employees can choose not to have a Works Council, the advantages of setting up one can often eclipse the potential disadvantages.

Weighing the Pros and Cons of German Works Councils

German Works Councils offer numerous employee benefits, including job security, improved remuneration, increased efficiency, and employee representation.

However, they can also present employers with increased costs, heightened regulation, potential for conflict, release of council members, and diminished efficiency.

Companies must thoroughly weigh the advantages and disadvantages of Works Councils before deciding to establish one.

German Works Council Pros and Cons
German Works Council Pro and Con

Benefits for Employees

Works Councils provide a myriad of advantages for employees, including:

  • Enhanced working conditions
  • Job security
  • The right to be informed and consulted on matters that impact their work
  • Better pay, including the right to receive a fair wage and to be compensated for overtime.

Works Councils, by safeguarding and representing employee interests, help foster a more balanced and supportive workplace, with the assistance of dedicated works council members.

Challenges for Employers

While there are many benefits to establishing a Works Council, employers may also face challenges such as increased bureaucracy, potential conflicts, and the need to release council members for their duties. These challenges can be mitigated through open communication, cooperation, and a commitment to finding mutually beneficial solutions.

Addressing these challenges proactively enables employers to cultivate a harmonious workplace, benefiting both the company and its employees.

Trade Unions vs. Works Councils: Key Differences

Trade unions and Works Councils differ in their scope and focus, with unions representing industry-specific interests and Works Councils focusing on internal employee interests. Trade unions operate at a broader level, safeguarding the specific interests of employees across an entire industry, while Works Councils ensure adherence to employee protection laws and collective bargaining agreements within a specific company.

Understanding these differences is crucial to comprehend the distinct roles each entity plays within the German labor relations framework.

German Work Council Comparison to a Union
German Work Council Comparison to a Union

German Works Councils — Our Take

German Works Councils play a vital role in advocating for employee interests and collaborating with management to create a balanced and harmonious work environment. By understanding the structure, roles, benefits, and challenges of Works Councils, companies can make informed decisions about establishing a council and navigating German labor laws. 

International companies considering setting up a German Works Council should consider advice from a German Professional Employer Organization (PEO). These are professional employment firms who are experts in German labor law and compliance. 


A German Works Council (Betriebsrat) is a company-level body of representatives independent from national trade unions and Employer Associations, serving the direct interest of the company's employees.

The purpose of a works council is to represent employee interests, reduce workplace conflict, and increase bargaining power at the expense of employers through legislation.

The German works council typically consists of three people for companies with 21-50 employees, or five members for companies with more than 50 employees.

The Russian Revolution of 1905 saw the creation of workers' councils, more commonly referred to as soviets.

German Works Council members are elected every four years via an election committee appointed by employees and employer obligations.

Travis is a global business development advisor. He has spent the last 14 years supporting business establishment and development in North America, Southeast Asia, and throughout the world. With multiple degrees from the University of Oregon, Travis currently splits his time between the US, and Bali, Indonesia. At RemotePad, Travis writes about remote work, hiring internationally and PEO/EOR business models.